Observation and Empiricism

The first observations could be data obtained from the library or information from your own experience.

Another source of observations could be from trial experiments or past experiments.  These observations, and all that follow, must be empirical in nature – that is, they must be sensible, measurable, and repeatable, so that others can make the same observations. Read more…

Logic and Reasoning

The meaning of reason is to question, to call to account, to hold argument, discussion, discourse, talk or converse with another to employ reasoning or argument with a person in order to influence conduct or opinions; to think in a connected, sensible or logical manner; to employ the faculty of reason in forming conclusions.; to explain, support, infer, deal with by reasoning; to think out, to arrange the thought of in a logical manner.

Read more…

Scientific Method

In a world that is not directly understandable we find that we sometimes disagree with others as to the facts of the things we see in the world around us.

We also find that there are things in the world that are at odds with our present understanding. One must ask a meaningful question or identify a significant problem, and one should be able to state the problem or question in a way that is conceivably possible to answer it. Any attempt to gain knowledge must start here. Scientific method refers to the process by which scientists, collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate, reliable, consistent and non-arbitrary representation of the world. Read more…

Science and Knowledge

There are other methods of discovering and learning knowledge about nature, but science is the only method that results in the acquisition of reliable knowledge.

Reliable knowledge is knowledge that has a high probability of being true because its veracity has been justified by a reliable method. Reliable knowledge is sometimes called justified true belief, to distinguish reliable knowledge from belief that is false and unjustified or even true but unjustified. Read more…

The Traditional, the Contemporary and Orthodoxy

The roots of the word ‘orthodox’ help to clarify the distinguishing qualities of established schools of thought to the neophyte arrangements which fit outside of the canon of currently accepted scientific knowledge.

The word orthodox arises from two Greek words, ortho and doxa. Ortho has the meaning; in composition, straight: upright: perpendicular: right: genuine: derived from the Greek, orthos, meaning straight, upright, right. Doxa has the meaning: derived from the Greek meaning opinion and relating sound in doctrine: believing or according to the received or established doctrines or opinions. Read more…